Speakers - Carlos L. Cespedes

(Short lecture)


Chemico-Ecological relationship between Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex and several insects in central and Mountain lands of Chile.


Carlos L. Cespedes1*, Julio Alarcon1, Evelyn Muñoz1, Jose G. Avila2, Armando Ariza-Castolo3, David S. Seigler4, I. Kubo5.


1Phytochemical-Ecology Lab, Chemistry and Biotechnology of Bioactive Natural Products Group, Basic Science Dept., Faculty of Sciences, University of Bio Bio, Chillan, Chile.

2Phytochemistry lab, UBIPRO, FES-Iztacala, UNAM, Mexico D.F., Mexico.

3Chemistry Dept., CINVESTAV, IPN, Mexico.

4PLant Biology Dept. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Ill, US.

5Chemistry of Natural Products Lab, ESPM Dept., University of California, Berkeley, US.

 The diterpenes, iridoids and naphthoquinone glycosides are several of secondary metabolites found in almost all species of Calceolariaceae plants (formerly Scrophulariaceae). While these plants may be toxic or deterrent to most insects (including pest or no-pest species), some species of insects have evolved the ability to specialize on Calceolaria plants containing these types of compounds and a subset of those have the ability to sequester and store these compounds for defense against their own enemies. However, several plant species of Calceolaria vary in the amount and chemical configuration of diterpenes, iridoids and naphthoquinone glycosides that the insects sequester and whether these are retained into the adult stage.

In the lepidopteran and mites, the ability to sequester diterpenes-iridoids (or naphthoquinones) has arisen several times. The main infection of several Calceolaria species are mites (C. herbeohybrids and other of tropical occurrence, for instance), some lepidopteran such as whitefly, crawler and miner have been observed, while on the other hand many mosquitoes species have been found death on leaves.

Several scientific questions and trends on these interesting chemical-ecology topics are discussed.



Cespedes, CL., Lina-Garcia, L., Kubo, I., Salazar, JR., Ariza-Castolo, A., Alarcon, J., Aqueveque, P., Werner, E., Seigler,DS. Calceolaria integrifolia s.l. complex, reduces feeding and growth of Acanthoscelides obtectus, and Epilachna varivestis. A new source of bioactive compounds against dry bean pests. Ind. Crops Prod. 2016, 89 (1), 257-267.

Cespedes, CL., Aqueveque, PM., Avila, JG., Alarcon, J., Kubo, I. New advances in chemical defenses of plants: researches in Calceolariaceae. Phytochem. Rev. 2015, 14 (3), 367-380.

Cespedes, CL., Salazar, JR., Ariza-Castolo, A., Yamaguchi, L., Avila, JG., Aqueveque, PM., Kubo, I., Alarcon, J. Biopesticides from Plants: Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato. Environmental Research, 2014, 132, 391–406.