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Abstracts - Doraí Periotto Zandonai

SYMBIONT FUNGI (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus) AND BLACK YEASTS: A INVESTIGATION OF GARDEN OF LEAF-CUTTING ANTS

 

Doraí Periotto Zandonai1*, Alana Kelyene Pereira1, Eli Fernando Pimenta1, Maria de Fátima das Graças Fernandes1, Paulo Cesar Vieira1, Moacir Forim1, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca2, João Batista Fernandes1

1  Universidade Federal de São Carlos; dorai@ufscar.br

2  UNESP – Rio Claro

*  Correspondence: dorai@ufscar.br

 

Brazil presents, nowadays, huge economic relations related to the development of agriculture. Taking in account the climatic, natural, and geographical diversity, this country has 388 million fertile arable and high productivity lands1. With all these factors in favor, added to significant productivity gains, it is observed that in recent years Brazil is a prominent place in the global supply of agricultural products. The vast biodiversity generates the broad diversification that is related to insect pests, fungus and weeds that may hinder the development of agriculture. Leaf-cutting ants (Attini: Formicidae) are important pests in plantation of Pinus and Eucaliptus, and they live in an obligate mutualism with fungi that is cultivated as food. The complex ecology, evolution and chemistry of symbiotic interactions present in these gardens opens the creativity to study. The symbiosis currently contains five identified and characterized symbiots: Attine ants, the fungi Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the cultivar-attacking microfungi of the genus Escovopsis, the antibiotic-producing bacteria of the genus Pseudonocardia, and a black yeast parasitizing the ant-Pseudonocardia mutualism2. All these interactions need more knowledge of different study areas. This work aims to evaluate the interactions of symbiote fungi, Leocoagaricus gongylophorus, with black yeast, isolated recently from the garden in co-culture, analyzing the differences in chromatograms, MS and NMR spectra. The yeast of genus Aureobasidium, Exophiala, Phialophora e Pyrenochaeta were isolated from the tegument of leaf-cutter ant and identified for CEIS – UNESP Rio Claro. The mono-cultures of the fungi, the black yeasts and de symbiote fungi were made in liquid medium, by 3 weeks in four different middle of culture, two medium were poor, and the others, rich. Through the analysis of cultures, it was verified some differences in mono co-culture, results were compered by HPLC-DAD and UV and UPLC-DAD-MS. The co-cultures of fungi presented some difference in culture, suggesting the inhibition or induction of production of some metabolites. In the Petri plate, it is possible to see the zone of inhibition, due to the alteration of colors or morphology of the culture. The spectra 1H NMR of the extracts of fungi in liquid medium presented high complexity. Studies of co-culture are progress in the same way of the mono-culture, because these systems are very important to understand the biological progress in the nature. Initial analysis show that this promising approach constitutes a strategic method to highlight new structures and, possibly, new skeletons with relevant biological activity and potentially new modes of action in the field of drug discovery3 and ants control.

 

FAPESP proc. 2012/25299-6 e 2016/12304-2.